Though there has been intense research and advances in treatments and therapies, it is still deemed one of the leading causes of death across the globe. It is estimated that every year, cancer causes 7 million deaths worldwide. Approximately 16 million cases of cancer will be diagnosed by 2020.
The leading causes of cancer mortality include lung, liver, colon, stomach and breast. Major contributors to these forms of cancer include the carcinogens that are found in smoke, tobacco products, both chemical and infectious agents, as well as leads that contain radiation. The carcinogens in these elements cause genetic abnormalities that lead to the development of cancer.
There are a variety of therapies available. The majority of these therapies involve surgically removing the malignant cells that are present in cancer, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and radiation therapy. The type of treatment that is recommended varies from person to person and is based on several factors. These factors include the location of the cancer, its stage, and the grade of the tumor, as well as the overall physical and mental condition of the patient. Of all these treatments, chemotherapy has been found to be one of the most effective treatments for cancer. The success of this type of treatment is dependent on the types of systems that are used to deliver the medication, and the target approach.
Characteristics for Ideal Delivery of Chemotherapy
While several approaches are available for cancer therapy, chemotherapy is thought to be the most effective form of treatment. The primary objective of chemotherapy is delivering the proper amount of medication to infected organs or cells without impacting healthy organs and cells in order to achieve the necessary therapy.
In order to achieve this objective, the systems used for delivering the medication are designed in a way that they have to maintain the proper amount of the therapeutic agent to the infected site without creating a resistance to the medication on both cellular and non-cellular levels. The delivery systems have to prolong the systematic circulation and controlled release pattern without disrupting the pharmacodynamics of the agents that are used to delivery this form of therapy.
Advancements in the Delivery of Chemotherapy
In order to combat the negative effects of chemotherapy and make this form of cancer therapy more effective, researchers have proposed including the delivery of P-glycoprotein inhibitors that contain encapsulated anti-cancer medications in the form of nanoparticles. Researchers believe that this inclusion will successfully prevent several issues, including the resistance to Pglycoprotein multi-medication resistance.
Chemotherapeutics that are used to treat cancer are associated with the quick clearance of blood via the reticuloendothelial system. As a result, this inhibits the success of this type of cancer therapy. The issue can be treated by utilizing PEGylation in the system of delivering chemotherapy. It has been discovered that the polyethyleneglycol coated liposome has a notably higher half-life of cancer chemotherapeutics in the blood.
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Using Drug Targeting for Chemotherapy
The conventional methods of administering chemotherapy are accompanied by limitations. The primary limitations include the absence of tumor selectivity, arbitrary distribution, and a low therapeutic index. These limitations have a tendency to cause severe side effects.
Improvement of tumor selectivity of anticancer medications can be markedly improved by creating conjugates that hold peptides or antibodies that are specific to a tumor. To prevent the issues that are linked to conventional methods employed for the delivery of chemotherapy, advanced targeted nanotechnological based therapy is being examined. This targeting system makes use of a variety of factors, including liposomes, nanotubes, nanocrystals and nanofibers, which are believed to have the ability to provide more specific treatment without damaging non-cancer cells. As such, the potential for reducing toxicity and adverse effects while improving the overall success of the treatment exists. In short, these efforts can vastly improve the distribution of the medication and the outcome of the chemotherapy.
Improved Results via Targeted Chemotherapy
When chemotherapy was first discovered, it greatly changes the approach to treating cancer. It was found that this type of cancer therapy prevented malignant cells for multiplying by intruding the copying process of DNA that all cells – both malignant and healthy – use to replicate. However, the majority of chemotherapies that were initially used to treat cancer were not targeted toward the cancer it was being used to treat itself. As a result, this caused significant damage to not just cancer cells, but to healthy cells, as well. In other words, while other forms of cancer therapy, such as radiation and surgery, on affect the area being concentrated on, chemotherapy can affect the entire body.
By using a targeted approach to therapy, there will be a distinctly more positive outlook regarding the treatment of cancer via chemotherapy. The variety of approaches available, including the use of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, peptide medication conjugates, and antibody medication conjugates will make it possible for healthcare professionals and patients to select the most effective chemotherapy treatment option possible.
Problems related to the safety, efficacy, accumulation of toxicity, and the removal of other problematic issues associated with chemotherapy are the goal of a targeted delivery system. As such, it is fairly certain that healthcare providers and cancer patients will have access to several chemotherapy alternatives, making it possible to choose the most effective and economical targeted treatment for specific types of cancer. The approaches to targeted therapy are constantly evolving. New advances are being discovered and utilized that can improve the overall outcome of chemotherapy for the treatment of cancer, thereby certifying this form of cancer therapy’s efficacy over other types of treatment. The advances of a targeted therapy system ensure that chemotherapy will remain a vital part of the cancer therapeutics market.