Illegal trading of human organs: a worldwide growing market
Illegal organ trade is on the rise worldwide - with approx. one billion USD per year. The study "Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal" provides new insights and recommendations. "Brokers are key players in the organ trade network. They financially benefit the most from these transactions."
Frederike Ambagtsheer, Willem Weimar (Eds.) Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal - Results and Recommendat
Brokers may include doctors, hospitals and matching agencies. They operate individually or work with agencies and organized groups - e.g. criminal syndicates. Testimonies against brokers are very rare. As recipients and suppliers do not file complaints against them, many brokers escape law enforcement. Prosecutions of brokers have taken place in Turkey, Israel, India, South Africa, United States, Kosovo and Brazil.
Organ brokers encounter little difficulty in finding impoverished individuals willing to exchange their organ for cash ...
Many suppliers approach brokers themselves and some have said to put pressure on the broker to arrange the organ sale. Many are known to be disappointed, frustrated or angry if they fail to pass the required medical tests and therefore are deemed ineligible for providing an organ. However, suppliers who voluntarily sell their kidneys may nonetheless face severe vulnerabilities and exploitation ...
The payments that living donors receive varies extensively worldwide. Individuals from India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Colombia and the Philippines reported to have received between USD 1.000 and 2.500 for their kidney or liver. In contrast, kidney suppliers from Israel and Turkey reported to have received between USD 7.500 and 20.000, before the brokers discovered that poor Romanians and Brazilians were willing to accept less ...
Although the number of organ buyers is much lower than potential organ suppliers, the authors found that the amounts of money paid by recipients for kidneys and livers varies extensively. The mean prices range from USD 20.000 (e.g. India) to 75.000 (e.g. China). The Israeli-led syndicate of organ brokers in general set a fee of USD 100.000 to 120.000 for its Israeli recipients. In the first organ brokering case in the United States the accused broker admitted in federal court that local recipients paid him up to the high amount of USD 160.000 for a kidney, acquired from suppliers for USD 10.000 each...
Brokers use all kinds of tactics to maximize earnings and are criticized for paying substantially less than what they have promised and keeping a large share of the payment themselves. Their presence is likely to enhance exploitation of hope on the one hand and hopelessness on the other.
>> Frederike Ambagtsheer, Willem Weimar (Eds.) Trafficking in Human Beings for the Purpose of Organ Removal - Results and Recommendations.
Pabst 2016, 152 pages.
ISBN print 978-3-95853-121-5 http://www.pabst-science-publishers.com/index.php?30&backPID=30&swords=978-3-95853-121-5&tt_products=180
ISBN ebook 978-3-95853-122-2 http://www.ciando.com/ebook/bid-2097046-trafficking-in-human-beings-for-the-purpose-of-organ-removal-results-and-recommendations.html?CFID=363b1718-80b7-4287-b6c3-b63186e71d05&CFTOKEN=0&jsessionid=D23BD119DD18829D042FFE15B902644A
Pabst Science Publishers (Lengerich/Westfalen) veröffentlicht zehn psychologische und neun medizinische Fachzeitschriften; darüber hinaus erscheinen bei Pabst aus den gleichen Fachbereichen mehr als hundert Bücher jährlich - teils wissenschaftliche Spezialtitel, teils allgemeinverständliche Fachliteratur.
Pabst Science Publishers
Internet: pabst-publishers.de / www.psychologie-aktuell.com
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