Systematic controls in the East: migration management and border security in the Habsburg EmpireSystematic controls were carried out at the Habsburg Empire's border with the Ottoman Empire as far back as the 18th century. Combined with the mobility control of Ottoman migrants, they were key features of Habsburg population policy. The development of this policy is currently being studied with the support of the Austrian Science Fund FWF.
The protection of external borders and control of migratory movements are not only a matter of concern for today's governments, they were also a preoccupation of the Habsburg Empire's authorities in the 18th century. As part of a project funded by the Austrian Science Fund FWF, historian Josef Ehmer from the University of Vienna and his colleague Jovan Pešalj have studied the development of the Habsburg Empire's initial measures for controlling migration at the border to the Ottoman Empire and emphasize the pioneering nature of this policy: "Responsibility for border security and the control of migrant mobility was shifted from the regional level to the central state level and systematised. These measures in the Habsburg Empire anticipated the nation-state practices of the 19th century as implemented by France, for example."
First modern border
The project explains the development of the borders between the Habsburg and Ottoman Empires. Ehmer and his research team set out to answer the question as to why the first modern border arose in this economically peripheral location and found the answer in a series of overlapping military, medical and economic factors. Thanks to its clarification of territorial claims, the Belgrade peace settlement between Vienna and Constantinople resulted in the modification of the military border in 1739 and the erection of a permanent cordon sanitaire. This enabled the establishment of a stable border between the Ottoman and Habsburg Empires and the mobility control of Ottoman migrants.
Strict border controls
With the help of records from the quarantine stations at the cordon sanitaire, the research team analysed the development of a systematic system of immigration and import controls. "The erection of a permanent cordon sanitaire included strict border controls at the fortified military border," explains Ehmer. "In addition to continuously manned watchtowers, which maintained visual contact with each other, border points with quarantine stations were built. Records were kept on persons entering and leaving the territory for the Health Commission and the Austrian royal registry." A medium-sized quarantine station, like that of Mehadia in Banat, received an average of 516 people annually and consisted of 26 units which included quarantine residences, offices, store rooms, stables and an inn. The border-crossing system was strict: "Travellers were detained for at least two to three weeks and for several weeks in the event of a plague risk. Their clothing and any goods and objects they were carrying were washed and fumigated to eliminate toxic vapours (miasmas) that were suspected of harbouring plague pathogens. Accompanying animals were taken to nearby rivers for cleaning," says the historian, explaining the epidemiological measures implemented at the time. "In addition to health concerns, there were also economic reasons for controlling people entering the territory: many Ottomans were traders and brought raw materials like wool and leather and food into the country, for which customs duties had to be paid."
Travel documents for mobility control
As the project's findings show, the Habsburg central authorities' access to information about people entering the Empire was facilitated by the monitoring of their settlement and mobility within the territory. The development of travel documents like passports and other means of identification can be seen as the first modern forms of mobility control, while the methods employed, however, were still far from uniform in the 18th century. In addition to the travellers' names, information was also generally recorded at the border controls to the Ottoman Empire about their origins, profession, ethnicity and religious affiliation. On the payment of a stamp fee, the travellers were issued with passports by the border authorities, which they were required to carry with them at all times.
Immigration and demographic policy
Based on naturalisation regulations, the research team also examined the significance of all of these controls and data records for the Habsburg population policy. "The population policy of the time was strongly oriented towards growth so immigrants were basically seen as an asset. At the same time, however, the relationship with migrants was ambivalent," explains Ehmer. "In the case of Ottoman immigrants who wished to settle permanently in the Habsburg Empire, it was deemed necessary to eliminate as far as possible any doubts about their loyalty to the Emperor."
The FWF project shows how a state-wide migration policy arose in the case of the Habsburg Empire of the 18th century. Its findings may contribute to the differentiation of contemporary political-social discourse on population policy and migration control.
FWF Austrian Science Fund
The Austrian Science Fund (FWF) is Austria's central funding organization for basic research.
The purpose of the FWF is to support the ongoing development of Austrian science and basic research at a high international level. In this way, the FWF makes a significant contribution to cultural development, to the advancement of our knowledge-based society, and thus to the creation of value and wealth in Austria.
Prof. Josef Ehmer
University of Vienna
Department of Economic
and Social History
1010 Vienna, Austria
T +43 / 1 / 4277- 413 34
Austrian Science Fund FWF:
Haus der Forschung
1090 Vienna, Austria
T +43 / 1 / 505 67 40 - 8111
Copy Editing & Distribution:
PR&D – Public Relations for
Research & Education
1090 Vienna, Austria
T +43 / 1 / 505 70 44
This release was published on openPR.
Permanent link to this press release:
Please set a link in the press area of your homepage to this press release on openPR. openPR disclaims liability for any content contained in this release.
You can edit or delete your press release Systematic controls in the East: migration management and border security in the Habsburg Empire here
News-ID: 359298 • Views: 533
More Releases from FWF - Austrian Science Fund
While fear and aggression tend to curb our appetite, sadness and frustration seem to stimulate it. A project funded by the Austrian Science Fund FWF looks into the connections between mood and overeating in healthy and bulimic individuals. We know how it feels to look forward to our favourite dish; we are familiar with the notions of comfort food and feeling butterflies in the stomach instead of hunger. In eating
Neurosciences: a stress test for men and women
Whilst it is true that women and men respond differently to stress, current neuroscientific research only partially confirms traditional gender stereotypes. Other factors heavily contribute to the stress response such as self-esteem, hormones and stress regulation, as has been demonstrated by a project funded by the Austrian Science Fund FWF. How people react to stress is subjective. Gender also plays a fundamental role. Scientific studies have shown that the stress
Researching the grammar of sign language
Like spoken language, sign language has a complex and differentiated structure. One just has to be able to discern and interpret it. With the support of the Austrian Science Fund FWF, a research team from Klagenfurt is working on the elements of a grammar of sign language. It is language that distinguishes Homo sapiens from animals. A complex system in which smaller units combine into larger units, into sentences, into statements.
Using mathematics to hunt for computer errors
Improving the security of computer software and hardware requires mathematical analytic methods. Thanks to research by a team of computer scientists led by Krishnendu Chatterjee in a project funded by the Austrian Science Fund FWF, these methods will work significantly faster in the future. Security gap in application discovered, update urgently recommended. Alerts like that can confront us every week. Often, a comprehensive update that addresses teething troubles is already
More Releases for Empire
Plug Star celebrates signing new Empire distribution artist Bonni3
Do you dream for a successful career in the music industry? I am sure you know all too well how important connections and exposure are in this field. Gabriel Comfort, or better known by her stage name Bonni3 is an upcoming music artist, entrepreneur and digital marketer who aspires to help music artists get noticed online. With a very successful journey her example can teach you how you can turn
Enjoy excellent strains of marijuana seeds from Seeds Empire
Canada 06.09.2019. Medical marijuana seeds are developed with some medicinal benefits in it. These seeds have some traits which help a person get rid of several serious ailments. Among the various types of cannabis or marijuana seeds grown like auto-flowering seeds, feminized seeds, medical seeds are different because they possess medical benefits. Seeds Empire produces medical seeds which are excellent remedial measures and people are taking up these kinds of
International designers create for Human Empire
Human Empire, a Hamburg based design label, lauches a new t-shirt collection. The shirt desings are by international guest artists like Falko Ohlmer (D), Michael Willis (UK), Anton Weflö (S), Tim Lahan (US), Jim Stoten (UK), and Sergio Membrillas (E). All t-shirts are available at Human Empire Shop with immediate effect and, before long, in various streetwear shops all over Europe. Human Empire Shop runs an online shop and a small store
Second Empire Grand-Prix Announces Two March Races
RALEIGH, N.C. (February 26, 2010)—The Second Empire Grand-Prix (secondempireseries.com) will include two March races as part of its spring series—the WakeMed Cary Distance Festival on March 6 and the Run for the Oaks 5K on March 13. Both races are USATF-sanctioned and will raise money for local North Carolina charities. Benefiting the Cary Rotary Club, the WakeMed Cary Distance Festival will start at 9 a.m. in front of the BB&T
EMPIRE OF SPORTS AND NOMIS ANNOUNCE PARTNERSHIP
Empire of Sports, the first virtual world entirely dedicated to sport, and NOMIS, the revolutionary football boot designer and manufacturer, have announced partnership. NOMIS, whose design marks arguably the biggest progression in football boot innovation for decades, will soon be able to demonstrate the amazing performances of its boots to Empire of Sports’ players. The first massively connected multisport 3D game, Empire of Sports is offering players to practice through their
Thompson & Knight Attorney Recognized as "Empire State Counsel"
The global law firm of Thompson & Knight LLP is pleased to congratulate Ira L. Herman for being honored as an “Empire State Counsel” by the New York State Bar Association (NYSBA). He joins a distinguished group honored for their outstanding contribution in providing legal services to the poor in 2007. The “Empire State Counsel” program was created in 2006 to give specific recognition to NYSBA members who provide 50